When big international corporations are involved in anything and are involved in co-opting governments, all the we the peoples of the world are screwed. This post expanded [here].
There are some interesting technologies that a garage or backyard tinkerer could go a long way with ...
Putting the below Wikipedia entry [found here] below before it possibly disappears.
Syngas to gasoline plus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Syngas to gasoline plus
(STG+) is a thermochemical process to convert natural gas
, other gaseous hydrocarbons
or gasified biomass
into drop-in fuels, such as gasoline, diesel fuel or jet fuel, and organic solvents.
This process follows four principal steps in one continuous integrated loop, comprising four fixed bed reactors
in a series in which a syngas
is converted to synthetic fuels. The steps for producing high-octane synthetic gasoline are as follows:
- Methanol Synthesis:
Syngas is fed to Reactor 1, the first of four reactors, which converts
most of the syngas to methanol when passing through the catalyst bed.
CO + 2 H2 → CH3OH (methanol)
- Dimethyl Ether
(DME) Synthesis: The methanol-rich gas from Reactor 1 is next fed to
Reactor 2, the second STG+ reactor. The methanol is exposed to a catalyst and much of it is converted to DME, which involves a dehydration from methanol to form DME.
2 CH3OH → CH3OCH3 + H2O
- Gasoline synthesis: The Reactor 2 product gas is next fed to Reactor
3, the third reactor containing the catalyst for conversion of DME to
hydrocarbons including paraffins (alkanes), aromatics, naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and small amounts of olefins (alkenes), typically with the carbon number ranging from 6 to 10.
- Gasoline Treatment: The fourth reactor provides transalkylation and hydrogenation treatment to the products coming from Reactor 3. The treatment reduces durene/isodurene (tetramethylbenzenes) and trimethylbenzene
components that have high freezing points and must be minimized in
gasoline. As a result, the synthetic gasoline product has high octane
and desirable viscometric properties.
- Separator: Finally, the mixture from Reactor 4 is condensed to
obtain gasoline. The non-condensed gas and gasoline are separated in a
conventional condenser/separator. Most of the non-condensed gas from the
product separator becomes recycled gas and is sent back to the feed
stream to Reactor 1, leaving the synthetic gasoline product composed of
paraffins, aromatics and naphthenes.
The STG+ process uses standard catalysts similar to those used in
other gas to liquids technologies, specifically in methanol to gasoline
processes. Methanol to gasoline processes favor molecular size- and
and the STG+ process also utilizes commercially available shape-selective catalysts, such as ZSM-5
The STG+ process converts approximately one MMBtu of natural gas into
more than five gallons of 90+-octane gasoline, which is one of the
highest process efficiencies in the industry.
As is the case with other gas to liquids processes, STG+ utilizes
syngas produced via other technologies as a feedstock. This syngas can
be produced through several commercially available technologies and from
a wide variety of feedstocks, including natural gas, biomass and municipal solid waste
Natural gas and other methane-rich gases, including those produced from municipal waste, are converted into syngas through methane reforming
technologies such as steam methane reforming
and auto-thermal reforming
Biomass gasification technologies are less established, though several systems being developed utilize fixed bed or fluidized bed
Comparison to other GTL technologies
Other technologies for syngas to liquid fuels synthesis include the Fischer-Tropsch
process and the methanol to gasoline processes.
Research conducted at Princeton University indicates that methanol to
gasoline processes are consistently more cost-effective, both in
capital cost and overall cost, than the Fischer-Tropsch process at
small, medium and large scales.
Preliminary studies suggest that the STG+ process is more energetically
efficient and the highest yielding methanol to gasoline process.
The primary difference between the Fischer-Tropsch process and
methanol to gasoline processes such as STG+ are the catalysts used,
product types and economics.
Generally, the Fischer-Tropsch process favors unselective cobalt
catalysts, while methanol to gasoline technologies favor molecular size- and shape-selective zeolites.
In terms of product types, Fischer-Tropsch production has been limited to linear paraffins
such as synthetic crude oil, whereas methanol to gasoline processes can produce aromatics, such as xylene
, and naphthenes and iso-paraffins, such as drop-in gasoline and jet fuel.
The main product of the Fischer-Tropsch processs, synthetic crude
oil, requires additional refining to produce fuel products such as
diesel fuel or gasoline. This refining typically adds additional costs,
causing some industry leaders to label the economics of commercial-scale
Fischer-Tropsch processes as challenging.
Methanol to gasoline
The STG+ technology offers several differentiators that distinguish
it from other methanol to gasoline processes. These differences include
product flexibility, durene reduction, environmental footprint and
Traditional methanol to gasoline technologies produce diesel, gasoline or liquefied petroleum gas
STG+ produces gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and aromatics, depending on
the catalysts used. The STG+ technology also incorporates durene
reduction into its core process, meaning that the entire fuel production
process requires only two steps: syngas production and gas to liquids
Other methanol to gasoline processes do not incorporate durene
reduction into the core process, and they require the implementation of
an additional refining step.
Due to the additional number of reactors, traditional methanol to
gasoline processes include inefficiencies such as the additional cost
and energy loss of condensing and evaporating the methanol prior to
feeding it to the durene reduction unit.
These inefficiencies can lead to a greater capital cost and
environmental footprint than methanol to gasoline processes that use
fewer reactors, such as STG+. The STG+ process eliminates multiple
condensation and evaporation, and the process converts syngas to liquid
transportation fuels directly without producing intermediate liquids.
This eliminates the need for storage of two products, including
pressure storage for liquefied petroleum gas and storage of liquid
Simplifying a gas to liquids process by combining multiple steps into
fewer reactors leads to increased yield and efficiency, enabling less
expensive facilities that are more easily scaled.
The STG+ technology is currently operating at pre-commercial scale in
Hillsborough, New Jersey at a plant owned by alternative fuels company Primus Green Energy
. The plant produces approximately 100,000 gallons of high-quality, drop-in gasoline per year directly from natural gas.
Further, the company announced the findings of an independent
engineer’s report prepared by E3 Consulting, which found that STG+
system and catalyst performance exceeded expectations during plant
operation. The pre-commercial demonstration plant has also achieved 720
hours of continuous operation.
Primus Green Energy has announced plans to break ground on its first
commercial STG+ plant in the second half of 2014, and the company has
announced that this plant is expected to produce approximately 27.8
million gallons of fuel annually.
In early 2014, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
(USPTO) allowed Primus Green Energy’s patent covering its single-loop STG+ technology.